In the case of stained glass, the cutted glass pieces are assembled with the aid of various lead cames, the soldering points are coated with stearin oil and soldered with tin. Finally, the glass panel is cemented with linseed oil putty on both sides and secured with steel strips.
In the case of etching, the upper glass layer is dissolved by using hydrofluoric acid. For this purpose, one can cover the glass with films or various varnishes, thus etching out the motif. This technique is predominantly used in hand-blown flashed glass to obtain a two-colour motif on a glass piece.
In painting, black solder and enamel paints are applied. Depending on the application, the powdered paints can be blended with various painting materials and binding agents, on a water or oil basis. In addition to traditional hand-painting with brushes and distributors, there are various techniques of colour application, such as screen printing or airbrushing.
In airbrushing, black solder or ceramic enamels are not applied traditionally with the brush but with an airbrush gun, so you get brighter colours and soft, painterly transitions.
In the case of silk screening, the motif is transferred to the screen by means of phototechnology, either flat or as a screen. The ink is applied with a silk-screening oil and can now be printed onto the glass with a squeegee.
Sandblasting can be done two-dimensionally as well as in stages, depending on the thickness of the glass. For this purpose, the glass is covered with masking varnish, wood glue or films - depending on whether the intended use is more picturesque or more strictly graphic. The motifs can also be engraved as vector graphics by means of plotters.
In digital printing, any file, whether photo or text can be digitally printed onto the glass. There are also different densities from transparent to opaque - as single-pane safety or laminated glass.
In the case of fusing, various glass pieces, frits or powders are melted together. You can also work in several layers and also combine it with additional techniques such as painting and sandblasting.
Photovoltaics in combination with glass design is still new technology that is gaining more and more recognition in the light of today's energy problems and offers a wide range of design possibilities. The photovoltaic modules can be customised and also given irregular arrangements of photovoltaic cells.